---- Faini, Vincent D. Faini, Christianity, Conversations with Neo, Adventures in Marine Biology, Most People Talk Bullshit: One Primates Search For Intelligent Life, Phoenix Michaels, Touch of the Beast: Brent Fletcher, Requiem for a Midlife Crisis---- --


World Wide Team Government Romance Networking Community Chats Groups







Custom Search







43things, [1]. October 7, 2006.


International Herald Tribune article, Join? Well, if you have to ask....


BlackPlanet, BlackPlanet homepage.

BBC News article, Teen craze over networking sites.

Blue Dot Inc.

Blue Dot Continues to Change the Way People Share with Friends. Press release.

Quantcast ratings for broadcaster.com.

Blurty's stat page as of 10 August 2006.

Bolt acquires UK SMS text messaging company Fonepark


Care2 statistics, Care2 Homepage. Accessed 25 January 2007.

The View article, Take a Second Chance with that First Love. February 1, 2006.

Consumating.com, [2]. 10 August 2006.

Business Week article, E-Society: My World Is Cyworld. September 26, 2005.

DeadJournal, DeadJournal.com statistics. 10 August 2006.




Ecademy announcement, [3]. 20 October 2006.


About Facebook, accessed 1 February 2007.

Facebox Corporate Pages, accessed 10 March 2007.

Faceparty, Faceparty homepage. 13 April 2006.

Flirtomatic, Flirtomatic homepage. 14 February 2007.

Blog article, [5]. April 3, 2006.

Fotki Journal, Their "Blog" Entry - accessed 18 January 2007.

Friends Reunited, Their UK 'About Us' Page, accessed 1 February 2007.

Friendster, Friendster overview, 2006.

Frühstückstreff, [6], 2006.




http://www.gaiaonline.com/ as of 5 November 2006.


Graduates [7], as of 21 December 2006.

http://www.greatestjournal.com/ as of 10 August 2006

Usercount is available to logged-in members

http://hyves.nl/ as of 13 September 2006


IMVU, IMVU Information. 2006.

Homepage. Accessed 14 February 2007.

Official iWiW blog. 19 July 2006.

Interview with Martin Stiksel of last.fm. Accessed 18 February 2007

http://www.linkedin.com/ Number of accounts cited in feature article on LinkedIn in December issue of Business 2.0

http://www.livejournal.com/ (as of 15 August 2006).

PressBox.co.uk Press Release, LunarStorm launches new, fun, young adult and teen service in UK. 17 November 2005.

comdex score


Press Release by mixi, Inc. (in Japanese). 29 June 2007.

Multiply.com company blog entry. 25 August 2006.

mygamma.com, myGamma homepage. as of 23 February 2007.

Members' Homepage (you must be a logged in member to view usercount). Accessed 12 March 2007.

Web generation preserves memories online. 25 June 2006.


Count based on number of people available in primary network as of 12 March 2007.



Wall Street Journal, "Myspace's New Rivals Are Winning Friends", September 29, 2006.

Press-release MTG/Playahead acquisition, 9 January 2007

ProfileHeaven Press Release, Profileheaven to Appoint Paul Myers to Board. March 18, 2006.




Ryze, Ryze business networking. May 2006.

ClickZ article, Alloy Buys High School Social Networking Site. March 29, 2006






browse people. Retrieved on 17 January 2007. Open to members only


VietSpace member list

Media Week article, Media Run wins travellers' website account. 27 April 2006.

Profiles featured on http://www.webbiographies.com/ front page are a sample, and not a complete list of members--as per email from Web Biographies' staff.

Trendwatching.com, Youniversal Branding. July 2006.

WPXI article, Warnings Issued For Popular Web Site. July 21, 2005.

openBC Press Release openBC hits the 1 million member mark. 31 January 2006.

Xuqa, Xuqa homepage. April 13, 2006.

In the Race With Google, It’s Consistency vs. ‘Wow’. New York Times, 24 July 2006.

Zaadz People, Zaadzsters page. 15 December 2006.

Online dating category - articles on a number of dating sites.

Hospitality service

www.Travellersconnected.com is a huge free community site for long term career break and gap year travellers




Benchmark virtual communities

BBS or Internet Forum: The WELL, GEnie, Dead Runners Society

Blog: LiveJournal, Xanga, MySpace, Facebook, Blogger

Webcomic: UserFriendly, Penny Arcade, Sluggy Freelance, Ctrl+Alt+Del

Virtual world/city: LucasFilm's Habitat, Secondlife, Millsberry, Red Light Center

IM: ICQ, Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger, AIM


MMORPG: Everquest, Ultima Online, RuneScape, World of Warcraft, Silk Road Online

MOO: LambdaMOO


P2P: Kazaa, Morpheus, Napster, Limewire


Wiki: Wikipedia, WikiWikiWeb, Wetpaint, PBWiki

WWW: eBay, GeoCities, Slashdot, Digg

Dead Runners Society



Something Awful


The Talk

Zombie Squad





Art communities

Albino Blacksheep













Category:MU* servers

Category:MU* games


Ethnical communities

Fillos de Galicia





Other types

4chan (imageboards)


Del.icio.us (social bookmarking)

eHarmony (online dating service)

vMix (online video sharing community)

GameTZ.com (an online game, music, movie, and book trading community)

CouchSurfing (free accommodation world wide through hospitality exchange)

Hospitality Club (free accommodation world wide through hospitality exchange)

iPoste.org (a video-enabled, non-commercial interest-centered community)

Meetup (an online service designed to facilitate real-world meetings of people involved in various virtual communities)

Stumbleupon (web surfing)

YTMND (Picture, Sound, Text)

MacJams.com (mac music sharing/community)

Smootsy (Online dating community)

Group blogs


Virtual community pioneers and experts

Ted Nelson

Vanessa DiMauro

Jonathan Bishop

Bart Cilfone

Peter Kollock

Jenny Preece

Sheizaf Rafaeli

Howard Rheingold

Fay Sudweeks

Sherry Turkle

Barry Wellman

Daniel Casal

Derek Liu

Long Vo

Philip Rosedale


See also

Community Portal

Bulletin board system

Chat room

Computer-mediated communication

Discourse community

Internet activism

Internet forum

Internet social network

Massively distributed collaboration

Massively Multiplayer Online Role-playing Games

Network of practice

Online deliberation

Online wedding

Social network

Social software

Social evolutionary computation

The Virtual Community

Virtual Community of Practice

Virtual ethnography

Virtual reality

Web community

Web of trust

Yahoo! Groups


Category:Virtual reality communities





Tuomi, Ilkka Internet, Innovation and Open Source:Actors in the Network 2000 First Monday


Further reading

Virtual communities and domestic violence crimes committed by their users - A detailed discussion about whether popular virtual communities should be held legally responsible for online domestic violence crimes committed by their users.


References and external links

Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.

Farmer, F. R. (1993). "Social Dimensions of Habitat's Citizenry." Virtual Realities: An Anthology of Industry and Culture, C. Loeffler, ed., Gijutsu Hyoron Sha, Tokyo, Japan

Hafner, K. 2001. The WELL: A Story of Love, Death and Real Life in the Seminal Online Community Carroll & Graf Publishers ISBN

Hagel, J. (1997). Net Gain: Expanding Markets through Virtual Communities. Boston: Harvard Business School Press (ISBN)

Jones, G. Ravid, G. and Rafaeli S. (2004) Information Overload and the Message Dynamics of Online Interaction

Spaces: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Exploration, Information Systems Research Vol. 15 Issue 2, pp. 194-210.

Kim, A.J. (2000). Community Building on the Web: Secret Strategies for Successful Online Communities. London: Addison Wesley (ISBN)

Kim, A.J. (2004). “Emergent Purpose.” Musings of a Social Architect. January 24, 2004. Retrieved April 4, 2006 [2].

Kollock, P. 1999. "The Economies of Online Cooperation: Gifts and Public Goods in Cyberspace," in Communities in Cyberspace. Marc Smith and Peter Kollock (editors). London: Routledge.

The author has made available an online working draft

Kosorukoff, A. & Goldberg, D. E. (2002) Genetic algorithm as a form of organization, Proceedings of Genetic and

Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2002, pp 965-972

Morningstar, C. and F. R. Farmer (1990) "The Lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat", The First International Conference on Cyberspace, Austin, TX, USA

Neus, A. (2001). Managing Information Quality in Virtual Communities of Practice; Lessons learned from a decade's experience with exploding internet communication [3] IQ 2001: The 6th International Conference on Information Quality at MIT.Mchughjc 22:01, 8 February 2007 (UTC)

Preece, J. (2000). Online Communities: Supporting Sociability, Designing Usability. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (ISBN)

Rheingold, H. (2000). The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. London: MIT Press. (ISBN)

The author has made available an online copy

Sahat online

Smith, M. "Voices from the WELL: The Logic of the Virtual Commons" UCLA Department of Sociology.

Seabrook, J. 1997. Deeper: My Two-Year Odyssey in Cyberspace Simon & Schuster ISBN (Hardcover) - ISBN (Paperback)

Sudweeks, F., McLaughlin, M.L. & Rafaeli,S. (1998) Network and Netplay Virtual Groups on the Internet, MIT Press. Portions available online as: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol2/issue4/ JCMC, VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4: NETWORK AND NETPLAY.

Building Electronic Communities and Networks - free e-learning module on designing, developing and facilitating virtual communities.

The International Journal of Web-Based Communities

News Consumption in Online Communities

Online Community Report - news and trends in online collaboration.

Wildbit (2005) Social Networks Research Report 35 page report on preparing, maintaining, and supporting a social network.




Guide to Building an Online Community

Virtual Community Network

www.insna.org - International Network for Social Network Analysis, with links to journals, annual conference, etc.

Organizational Network Mapping - SNA applied in business organizations

Virtual Center for Supernetworks

VisualComplexity.com - A visual exploration on mapping complex networks

Dynamic Centrality in Social Networks

WhatIs.com has a thorough entry on the origins of the term, along with other helpful information.

Sim6D is an online experiment based on the six degrees of separation where individuals can attempt to contact a stranger in another part of the world through their connections.

Knover.com - a site that works to connect notable people to other notable people online. It has a Six Degrees feature.

Network for Good - a nonprofit organization where users can donate to more than one million charities and search from among more than 36,000 volunteer opportunities.

The Million People Page - modern social networking experiment started in Feb 2006

Six Degrees of Wikipedia - links Wikipedia articles in six degrees fashion

E-mail Study Corroborates Six Degrees of Separation - a study by the journal Science.

Six Degrees Black - Social networking site built on concept of Six Degrees of Separation. The site is "black" oriented.

The Six Degrees of Kasparov - the six degrees of separation tested with Chess results.

playtxt mososo - was the first mobile social network incorporating six degrees of separation.

Could it be a big world? - 2001, Judith Kleinfeld, University of Alaska Fairbanks

Connecting with people in six steps- BBC article contesting its existence

Pumpthemusic Oracle- The 6 degrees theory applied to the musical universe

Knock, Knock, Knocking on Newton's Door, by Dan Ward - Journal article published by Defense Acquisition University, applies principles from Duncan Watts' book Six Degreesto technology innovation and scientific research.

MySpace Page a new page to try and test out the theory of six degrees of separation whereby users add themselves to see if they come across someone they know and the author will calculate the degrees of separation.

Newman, Mark, Albert-László Barabási, and Duncan J. Watts. 2006. The Structure and Dynamics of Networks. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Karinthy, Frigyes. Chain-Links. Translated from Hungarian and annotated by Adam Makkai and Enikö Jankó.

a b Barabási, Albert-László. 2003. Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life. New York: Plume.

Memorable quotes from Six Degrees of Separation. Accessed Nov. 11, 2006 from IMDB.com.

Jan. 18, 2007 press release from Network for Good. [1].

Billion To One website

Find Satoshi project




The Oracle of Bacon, with an automated Bacon calculator provided by the University of Virginia

Band To Band, links any band to any other band using albums, similar to the Kevin Bacon game

Cinema FreeNet Movie Connector finds links between film stars, and can also use directors and producers. (Note: Only current through 1/31/99, according to its Database Info page.)

Knover.com a site that works to connect notable people to other notable people online. It has a Six Degrees feature similar to this Kevin Bacon game.

Omnipelagos, finds the shortest (or most obscure) paths between any two terms in the Wikipedia.

Six degrees tool - Finds the shortest path between any two Wikipedia articles in the main namespace using wiki links. The source is also available.

The Oracle of Kasparov - shows the shortest path by which a chess player beats Kasparov.

Six Degrees of Lois Weisberg - Suggests that Bacon connects to many actors because he acts in many different kinds of roles and films.




The Oracle of Music- a site that connects artists in the musical universe


http://www.cs.virginia.edu/misc/news-bacon.html courtesy copies at the U Virginia Bacon site

http://oracleofbacon.org/center_list.html The Center of the Hollywood Universe: Note that the order and parenthetical average personality numbers are not current but reflect when the page was created or last updated. accessed 2006-10-11


Social Software

On-line chat

Virtual Community

Internet-related Lists

Online Social Networking

Internet Culture

Computing & Society

Information Technology

Social Networks


World Wide Web

Wide Area Networks

Communications by Region

Networks by Scale

Computer Networking

Social Networking



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